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Setting up virtual host with mod rewrite enabled in Ubuntu Hardy Heron

Virtual host is really what the name says, a virtual environment over the top of your current web server to simulate a separate hosting environment. Using virtual host you can enable site specific features and keep your development environment totally separate from another one. For example, if you want to experiment a simple application with both mod_rewrite enabled or disabled, you can setup two virtual host with these different settings to take place. In this blog post I will show you how to set up virtual host in ubuntu hardy heron with mod_rewrite enabled.

Step 1: setup a virtual domain

open /etc/hosts and add a virtual domain with a specific local IP. In this file it contains ip and domain name separated by a space. You can also add the port using a colon with the IP. Lets assume that our virtual domain name is “ilove.php” – and It will listen to the ip “127.0.1.2”

so we will add the following line to our /etc/hosts file
127.0.1.2:80 ilove.php

now whenever you point to http://ilove.php – your browser will actually open http://127.0.1.2:80

Step 2: configure virtual host with apache
here we will configure our newly added virtual domain against apache as a virtual host, and did I forget to say, with mod_rewrite enabled 🙂

goto /etc/apache2/sites-available and create a file named “ilove.php” – I recommend to keep it the same name as your virtual domain.
sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/ilove.php

write the following contents inside. but please note to create the appropriate directory before linking your virtual host with that, for example we’ve create a folder named “/home/<user name>/www/ilovephp” and linked that directory as my document root in the following configuration file.


<VirtualHost 127.0.1.2:80>
	ServerName ilove.php
	ServerAlias www.ilove.php
	ServerAdmin admin@ilove.php
	DocumentRoot /home/<user>/www/ilovephp
	<Directory /home/<user>/www/ilovephp>
		Options FollowSymLinks
		AllowOverride All
	</Directory>

</VirtualHost>

now create a symbolic link of this file to /etc/apache2/sites-enabled directory as “ilove.php”

sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/ilove.php /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/ilove.php

Step 3: restart apache (or reload)
simple, either one of the followings
sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

or

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 reload

or

sudo a2ensite ilove.php

and you are done! now you can point your browser to http://ilove.php

24 replies on “Setting up virtual host with mod rewrite enabled in Ubuntu Hardy Heron”

Instead of duplication

sudo cp /etc/apache2/sites-available/ilove.php /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/ilove.php

it’s much better to create symbolic link

cd /etc/apache2/sites-enabled
sudo ln -s /etc/apache2/sites-available/ilove.php ilove.php

Hi! I don’t see how this has to do with mod_rewrite. As far as I understand, this is the normal way to do multiple localhosts on a debian system, regardless of mod_rewrite.

Also, krig, here is a shortcut to the ln -s stuff:

sudo a2ensite ilove.php

Cheers,

Jay

I was just about to mention it when I saw Jay already mentioned it. In step 3, instead of manually creating the symbolic link, we can use

sudo a2ensite ilove.php

And we can easily disable the site using

sudo a2dissite ilove.php

Though its a debian/ubuntu specific command, but reduces the hassle of creating and removing symbolic links. And, this article is about ubuntu anyway 😉

Hi,
Thanks a lot for the post. I had a similar article myself on virtual hosts and have been following that procedure on Feisty and Gutsy. But somethings seems not to be working in Hardy. I have created a file called drupal6 and it looks like this

ServerAdmin madhusudancs@gmail.com
ServerName drupal6
ServerAlias http://www.locald6.com

DocumentRoot /home/madhu/mywebdevelopment/drupal6.0/

Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All

Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
allow from all

ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/

AllowOverride None
Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
Order allow,deny
Allow from all

ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log

# Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
# alert, emerg.
LogLevel warn

CustomLog /var/log/apache2/access.log combined
ServerSignature On

Alias /doc/ “/usr/share/doc/”

Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
Order deny,allow
Deny from all
Allow from 127.0.0.0/255.0.0.0 ::1/128

and as you said have enabled the site and have added 127.0.0.3 drupal6
to the host. But when I give drupal6 in browser it gives the following error

403 Forbidden

You don’t have permission to access / on this server.

My apache error.log has the following entries

Mon Jun 02 09:18:50 2008] [crit] [client 127.0.0.3] (13)Permission denied: /home/madhu/mywebdevelopment/.htaccess pcfg_openfile: unable to check htaccess file, ensure it is readable

Note that even though my DocRoot points to one directory below i. /home/…/mywebdevelopment/drupal6.0 it is looking for .htaccess in mywebdevelopment. So just to test I put my .htaccess copy there also. Still it shows the same error. Permission on all the files and directories is set to 777.

Please help me. Thanks a lot

Hi, thanks for this howto, i am getting the next error when i try to reload apache2

NameVirtualHost *:80 has no VirtualHosts

can somedody help me please?

nice tut.

Alfred! i got same error. but i solved it as:

if you use NameVirtualhost *:80 then use

else

NAMEVIRTUALHOST * then use

i don’t know why it happens. but when i did it the error has gone. 🙂

Hi,
I’ve never had to do this, and am still a bit confused.
Here is my setup.

Ubuntu 8.04 running on a remote server
Apache2
Tomcat 5.5

My webserver is running at http://www.mysite.com successfully. I have a separate application that I installed can only get to by typing in the url:

http://www.mysite.com:8080/accounting

I want users to type in
http://www.mysite.com/accounting

I know this should be ‘easy’ but I’ve google for hours and not found ‘the step-by-step’ files to edit and text to enter to do this. Can anyone help? Thanks in Advance!
Ken

I love this tutorial. It used to work great but I just installed ubuntu 9.1 and it ceased to work as well.
Apache has changed a few things like the httpd.conf file is now empty. Apache is making things more modular. Anyway enabling mod_rewrite is a little different now. Its a sym link. But the MAIN THING is that I could not get the name-based virtual host to work until I set this line:

to

So after hours of work. That is what it took.

I have another site in sites-available “mysite”. (Like you just tutored)
Then I a2dissite default reloaded apache, a2ensite mysite, & then reloaded apache2.
I get success messages at each step.
But when i open localhost, index.html of default opens.

Any help is greatly appreciated…

Thanks…

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